Issue 1 (44) ’ 2024

Issue 1 (44) ’ 2024

Obraz. – Issue 1 (44). – 2024



Title: Digital and Convergent Development Indicators for UATV English Channel in 2022-2023


Horodenko Lesia, Shtelmakh Pavlo

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 7–22

  • Horodenko Lesia, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Professor, e-mail: [email protected];
    Shtelmakh Pavlo, Magistrant, e-mail: [email protected].
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Educational and Scientific Institute of Journalism, Kyiv, Ukraine,

    Introduction. International broadcasting of Ukraine, namely the digital UATV English channel, has been active since 2017, but the most active period of rapid growth happened in 2022–2023 with the onset of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine. World attention allowed for a natural audience growth to the level of long-standing European and American international broadcasting YouTube channels. Implementing a modern strategy of digital tabloidisation kept the audience involved over time, and the channel maintained periodic natural audience growth, which is evidenced by certain digital and convergent indicators.
    Relevance of the study. Purpose of the researchresearch into the digital and convergent indicators of the development of the Ukrainian international broadcasting channel UATV English in 2022–2023 in order to understand their impact on strategic planning and efficiency of the media channel in the current information landscape.
    Methodology. Theoretical and empirical methods were used. The entire scientific procedure was based on a socio-communication approach. Source description, literature analysis, statistical method, observation, forecasting, historical method. The research period is from January 2022 to January 2024. The necessary data were collected from open-source digital analytics websites and social media platforms, as well as provided by the editorial team of UATV English itself.
    Results. The available data allow us to assess the efficiency of the current media strategy, implied by UATV English, based on digital indicators (both open-source and inside metrics), formulate conclusions and recommendations for an exemplary media strategy and lay ground for future in-depth research of Ukraine’s international broadcasting system after February 2022.
    Conclusions. Although the period of global attention has been diverted from Ukraine to the Middle East in the second half of 2023, the UATV English editorial team managed to maintain a high level of audience involvement, alongside providing natural growth of the audience through implying tabloid approaches to content design, using available tools for user engagement, analysing the demand of the audience and answering it with appropriate thematic content. However, there’s still room for standardising and establishing a single and exemplary media strategy and content design to meet the contemporary needs of the audience.
    Key words: Ukraine, international broadcasting, digital media, convergent media, new media.

    The article has been sent to the editors 08.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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  • Author


Title: Principles of Brand Communications in Wartime


Skorokhod Tetiana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 23–32

  • Skorokhod Tetiana, PhD in Journalism, National Technical University of Ukraine Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].

    Introduction. In the conditions of war, brands must keep in touch with their audience and tell what exactly they are doing to win, support their team and develop the country’s economy, present the history of the brand in difficult conditions, in a new reality, with existing problems and achievements, broadcast important messages to support its customers. Under the influence of conditions of uncertainty, it was important for brands to transform their communications in accordance with the new reality and new characteristics of their consumers.
    Relevance of the study. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to summarize the experience of Ukrainian brands in communication during the war and to single out the principles that characterize appropriate brand communication in conditions of uncertainty. The aim of the study is to summarize the experience of Ukrainian brands in communication during the war.
    Methodology. The method of monitoring was used to review the activities of Ukrainian brands. The method of discourse analysis was used to clarify the context, the conditions in which brands communicated, the study of changing values, the spectrum of emotions, and consumer behaviour in conditions of uncertainty. With the help of the method of generalization, the provisions characterizing the appropriate communication of brands with their consumers in the conditions of war have been singled out.
    Results. Under the influence of the war and the conditions of uncertainty, the communication of Ukrainian brands changed. In order to be closer to their audience, to connect with them, brands changed traditional communication parameters. Brands generated new types of content according to the contextual groups of the target audience, adjusted the brand voice, and applied modern communicative practices. There were no aspects that brands missed in their communication. The time and place of content publication, its volume, taking into account the emotional background of the audience for the broadcast of certain messages were important.
    Conclusions. For the first time, brand communications in war conditions were comprehensively reviewed, the experience of Ukrainian brands in interaction with consumers was summarized and the principles of communications in war conditions were characterized, which can serve as a practical reminder for companies and organizations that seek to maintain contact with their audience in conditions of uncertainty.
    Keywords: brand communications, sensitive communications, communicative practices, types of content, visual communication.

    The article has been sent to the editors 04.12.2023
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: Preventive Function in Social Media Posts on Safety and Emergency Situations


Bondarenko Tetiana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 33–44

  • Bondarenko Tetiana, PhD (Philology), Associate Professor, Bohdan Khmelnytskyy Cherkasy National University, Cherkasy, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. In times of martial law, there is a noticeable demand for preventive media texts particularly in social networks informing the community about safety rules and emergency situations.
    Research relevance. The Media Relations Department at the State Emergency Service of Ukraine or SESoU prevents or mitigates a potential crisis by informing community about safety rules and regulations. While following the general media standards, in the period of martial law the procedure of informing the public of emergency has several specific features.
    Research Methods. The analytical-synthetic method has been used to explore the research background and define the main terms. The method of synthesis and generalization has optimized the theoretical outline. The interview has been used to survey the State Emergency Service employees. The observation and information products analysis method has been used to evaluate the content.
    Results. The phenomenon of preventive is substantiated as an interdisciplinary category that serves as an effective mechanism for preventing undesirable consequences and situations. The experience that the regional head departments of State Emergency Service of Ukraine have regarding public preventive information has been studied. The advantages to using social networks to provide prevention and advert risks have been described. The genre-compositional nature used in posts has been studied. The preventive or informational and explanatory types of posts have been identified.
    Conclusions. In order to objectively inform and preventively alert citizens to safety rules and emergency situations, it is necessary to actively leverage the potential of social media. Posts should be regularly prepared and published, and materials should be accompanied by the author’s photos and videos, which will help keep the feed active. The social media posts have been interpreted according to their genre characteristics as informational, emotional, ritualistic, exploratory, and argumentative. The preventive, or informational, genre is identified, that is aimed at providing unbiased information about a certain event, phenomenon, fact, and explaining the rules of safety compliance. In terms of composition, posts have a title, the main body, and a conclusion.
    Keywords: prevention, social media, post, media, security.

    The article has been sent to the editors 16.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: Video games as deep media: challenges during the russian-ukrainian war


Zinovieva Tetiana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 45–57

  • Zinovieva Tetiana, PhD (Art History), Associate Professor, Odesa Polytechnic National University, Odesa, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. The concept of “deep media” offers a valuable perspective on understanding modern media, with video games particularly noteworthy for their immersive and interactive nature.
    Relevance. Given the growth of the video game industry and its intersection with media, ethical and regulatory inquiries are pertinent, especially in light of events like the russian-Ukrainian war, where military-themed video games play a role of resistance in information wars.
    The purpose of the study is to substantiate the role of video games as deep media during the russian-Ukrainian war.
    Methodology. Employing scientific literature analysis, terminological scrutiny, comparative and cultural analyses, alongside examination of visual and textual aspects of computer games depicting the war.
    Results. The study scrutinizes the concept of deep media and identifies challenges surrounding the use of video games for resistance amidst information warfare due to russian aggression in Ukraine. Video games depicting the invasion serve as platforms for information dissemination and counter-propaganda. Leveraging video games as deep immersive media necessitates careful regulation, given their roles as cultural artifacts, tools of mass influence, and commercial products. Ethical and regulatory frameworks are vital for governing game design in media landscapes.
    Conclusions. Video games exhibit characteristics aligning with deep media, capable of captivating audiences, conveying complex narratives, and shaping cultural discourse. The convergence of media and gaming industries underscores the need for regulatory oversight, balancing artistic freedom, commercial interests, and public values.
    Keywords: video games, deep media, Russian-Ukrainian war, information warfare, convergence of journalism and gaming industry.

    The article has been sent to the editors 08.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: Features of coverage of the war in Ukraine on the example of the website of the official Iranian mass media «Irna»


Kosiuk Oksana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 58–71

  • Kosiuk Oksana, PhD (Philology), Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. After the full-scale invasion of Russia into Ukraine all countries of the world gradually got involved into the war which is perceived and viewed differently. Iran suddenly became one of the biggest challenges for the international community since it is a supplier of mass destruction weapons which almost caused the energy collapse of Ukraine in November-December 2022.
    Relevance of the study. Despite the numerous statements of the leading mass media, Iran is still positioning its pacifism and non-involvement in the war in Ukraine. The USA, GB, Germany, France, Turkey, Israel get appropriately involve in the information conflict as one side and the other side is India, China, Syria, Afghanistan and other countries of the East.
    Methodology. To find out what the matters, we decided to investigate the deployment of events and the development of confrontations on the pages of the most official Iranian mass media – the national news agency «Irna» with the help of content analysis, analogy, modelling and synthesis.
    Results. As a result of the conducted research it became clear that during15 months of the war (having hesitated a little at its beginning) IRNA carefully “documented” the course of events, but it also revealed certain strategies for hiding uncomfortable information and activation of so-called jeansa (hiding advertisement). The most common ones include periodic repetition (almost instilling) of phrases about support for Ukraine and its territorial integrity; permanent introduction of Afghanistan, Palestine, Syria, Yemen in the context as it is also not peaceful in these countries, Israel, the USA and Turkey appear as a counterweight to the Ukrainian-Russian twists and turns; attempts to shift attention from the actual to the extraneous are also not neglected; common input of information on policies of Russia and Putin “under the sauce” of different protocol interviews, vlogs and “international expert evaluations”; very often the agency refers to dubious sources like social networks. However, even the strategic use of tricks does not make individual items of IRNA news at least seemingly credible. The thought involuntarily arises that public non-compliance with international standards has deep historical roots and is connected with sacred values.
    Conclusions. Having carried out a superficial analysis of the history and religions of ancient Persia, we came to a logical conclusion: from the most ancient times to the present, the production of culture is subject to the law of sacred deception, known among Shia Muslims as taqiya and kitman. Thus, the official sources of the Islam Republic have the full right to lie. Yet, of course, all this requires additional research.
    Keywords: IRNA, massmedia, war, Ukraine, Iran.

    The article has been sent to the editors 04.12.2023
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: The risks of symbiotic relationship between terrorism and the media in media coverage of Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine


Myslovskyi Ihor

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 72–82

  • Myslovskyi Ihor, analyst, NGO Internews Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. The symbiotic relationship between terrorism and the media may have destructive media effects on society in peacetime, but under wartime conditions, these effects may intensify, pose new threats, and weaken the state’s position in fighting against the enemy.
    Relevance of the study. Identifying and analyzing these risks is a critical and relevant topic and scientific task during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine, which has significantly scaled after Russia invaded Ukraine in 2022. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to analyze the risks of the symbiotic relationship between terrorism and the media in the coverage of Russia’s aggression by Ukrainian journalists.
    Methodology. The negative consequences of the symbiotic relationship between terrorism and the media are identified through the analysis of scientific and media criticism articles. The risks of such ties during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine were determined by induction, reasoning by analogy, ascent from the abstract to the concrete, synthesis, and generalization.
    Results. The disproportionate to the overall war threat, overly dramatic and sensitive, sensationalized, detailed coverage of Russia’s terrorist practices in the Ukrainian media can lead to destructive media influence desired by the enemy: spreading fear, panic and paralyzing pessimism among Ukrainians, which turn them into a dysfunctional, disorganized society incapable of mobilizing resources under existential threats; such a society usually makes more significant emotional, irrational political pressure on the authorities making concede to terrorists; polarization of public opinion and internal political destabilization; Ukrainians who are latent supporters of Russia may perceive massive terrorist attacks as a manifestation of Russian tremendous military capability and a call to action (risks of collaboration and sabotage); distraction of public attention from other problems, such as losses on the battlefield; obtaining information from the media about the psychological state of society, countermeasures of the security forces (OSINT intelligence), etc.
    Conclusions. When covering Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine, Ukrainian journalists need to weaken the symbiotic relationship between terrorism and the media. They should develop a media frame for covering the Russian Federation’s terror that provides objective and comprehensive information for citizens and does not cause long-term destructive media effects on Ukrainian society, as well as indirect assistance to the enemy. Ukrainian media professionals can use the article’s results and journalistic examples to formulate or improve their editorial policy on media coverage of Russia’s terror in Ukraine.
    Keywords: media and terrorism, symbiotic relationship, Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine, media effects, journalism.

    The article has been sent to the editors15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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    14. Myslovskyi, (2020), “Media coverage of Lutsk hostage crisis on July 21, 2020 (based on content of Ukrainian news TV channels “Priamyi” and “Zik”) (Part 2)”, European political and law discourse, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 256–267, available at: (accessed 27 January 2024).
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Title: Coverage of fighting tasks of Ukrainian aviation in documentaries


Melnykova-Kurhanova Olena, Ivashchuk Antonina, Bukina Nataliia

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 83–91

  • Melnykova-Kurhanova Olena, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –
    Ivashchuk Antonina, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, email: [email protected].
    ORСID –
    Bukina Nataliia, PhD (Philology), Associate Professor, email: [email protected].
    ORCID –
    National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    Introduction. Documentaries about Ukraine‘s aerospace industry create conditions for the audience to immerse themselves in the world of aviation, to feel the effect of being present during combat missions, to cover military events and military operations, but in the first place, they tell the story of a person or people. Documentary filmmakers touched upon the topic of aviation at the beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian war in 2014 and 2015. After the full-scale invasion, the role of aviation became more important in the war, and a new wave of documentaries about military aviation appeared. The peculiarities of covering the combat missions of Ukrainian aviation during the full-scale invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation, the use of the latest methods of recording events, transmitting testimonies, and creating images ofheroes in documentaries are the subject of this study.
    The purpose of the study is to identify the features of contemporary television documentaries on aviation in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian war.
    Research methods. The results of the study were obtained using theoretical, descriptive, comparative methods, and systematic monitoring of documentaries about Ukrainian military aviation. The features of these films were identified, in particular, by the following criteria: duration, methods of recording events and facts, peculiarities of presentation, creation of characters, artistic techniques. The documentaries from 2015 and 2023 were compared.
    Results. We have analysed documentaries about the combat missions of Ukrainian aviation, such as Pilots. Return”, “Masters of the Sky”, “Downed Russian pilots”. The authors of the films use the techniques of video portraits, video interviews, and comments by experts or heads of relevant structures. Testimonies and interpretations of events help the viewer to understand the specifics of aviation.
    Conclusions. Documentary films enhance the publicistic images of heroes, including pilots and other aviation professionals, Ukrainian defenders, not only by recording facts, documenting events, testimonies, comments and interviews, but also by artistic techniques and editing.
    Keywords: documentary, aviation, documenting facts, publicistic image, artistic techniques.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

    1. Ivanova, O. & Chervinchuk, A. (2020), “Contemporary Ukrainian war documentary: author and author’s strategy”, Scientific developments of European countries in the field of philological research, Valtijapublishing, Riga, рр. 221–237.
    2. Ortner, Sherry B. (2023), Screening Social Justice: Brave New Films and Documentary Activism, Duke University Press? New York, USA? (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    3. Premaratna, N. (2021), “Dealing With Sri Lanka’s Demons: Using Documentary Film for Peacebuilding”, Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, vol. 16(1), pp. 39–54, available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    4. Youtube (2023), Thud Pilots: docymentary, available at: (accessed 15.10.2023).
    5. Brylla, C. (2023), Documentary and Stereotypes. Reducing Stigma through Factual Media, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Switzerland, 331 p., available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    6. Piotrowska, A. (2023), Psychoanalysis and Ethics in Documentary Film (2nd ed.), Behavioural Sciences, Humanities, London, Routledge, 290 p., available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    7. Korobko, V. (2017), “Characteristics of Television Documentary in the Discourse of Journalism Studies and its Forms”, Science and Education a New Dimension. Humanities and Social Sciences, v(23), I.: 139, Seanewdim, Budapest, рр. 57–60.
    8. Kellokoski, I. (2023), “Persuasion through people: The rhetorical categories of documentary subjects in Michael Moore’s films”, Nordic Journal of Media Studies, vol. 5(1), рp. 154–171.
    9. Fournier, G. (2014), The War Game and Who Bombed Birmingham?: usage politique du mode réflexif. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal, vol. XII-№1, (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    10. Melnykova-Kurhanova, O.S., Vasylchenko, V.M. & Lashkina, M.G. (2023), “Features of content on aviation topics in Ukrainian online journalism”, Scientific Notes of V. I. Vernadsky Taurida National University, Series: Philology. Journalism, vol. 34 (73), no. 4, рр. 296–301.
    11. Melnykova-Kurhanova, O.S., Vasylchenko, V.M. & Lashkina, M.G. (2023), “Coverage of the topic of drones in online media during the war in the context of aviation”, State and Regions: Series: Social Communications, no. 3 (55), Classical Private University, Zaporizhzhia, рр. 64–71.
    12. Melnykova-Kurhanova, O.S. & Yatchuk, O.M. (2023), “Telejournalism and Documentary in the Coverage of the Siege of Mariupol”, Image, iss. 2 (42), Sumy State University, Sumy, 2023, рр. 52–61.
    13. Youtube (2015), The pilots. Return: a documentary film, available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    14. Khraban, T. (2021), “Archetypical Aspects of Hero Image in Modern Ukrainian Non-Institutional Military Discourse”, Social Communications: Theory and Practice, vol. 12(1), pp. 83–97, available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    15. Spalek, M. (2023), “The brilliance and poverty of Ukrainian war documentaries”, available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).
    16.  Youtube (2023), Downed pilots of Russia: A documentary film by the GUR, , available at: (accessed: 15.10.2023).

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Title: «Fairy Land»: Altay in artistic report of V. Hzytsky


Bykova Olha

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 92–99

  • Bykova Olha, Ph.D. (Social Communications), Docent, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv Metropolitan University, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. The 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s forever entered the history of Ukraine as a period of incredible development of the cultural and artistic sphere. The rapid development of culture contributed to the spread of reporting, which helped readers to clearly, dynamically, in detail, and documentary accurately show a fragment of the life of that time.
    Relevance and goal. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that the genre-stylistic and thematic features of the reports of 1920−1930 are still under-researched and, therefore, require meticulous analysis.
    The goal is to investigate the specifics of the creation of the image of Altai in the Ukrainian literary reportage on the travel theme «Altai» by V. Hzhytsky based on a comprehensive and detailed analysis.
    Methodology. To study the outlined issue, general scientific methods of material selection and systematization, comparative analysis, bibliographical-descriptive, cultural-historical, and descriptive analytical methods, as well as the method of generalization were used.
    The results. Volodymyr Hzytsky’s report «Altai», which he wrote after visiting the Oirot Autonomous Region in 1928, was thoroughly analyzed. The author chose a chronological type of composition, which allows him not only to describe events but also to share his impressions and thoughts from what he saw. V. Hzytsky tries to make his report as interesting as possible for the reader. That is why he talks in detail about the nature of Altai, the mentality, traditions, and culture of the local population. The language of the report is extremely simple, and informal. One gets the impression that the reporter is simply talking to his readers and conveying the necessary information to them.
    Conclusions. Despite more than ninety years since it was written, V. Hzytsky’s literary report on the travel subject «Altai» is read with interest even today. V. Hzytsky’s observations are original, they do not repeat well-known truths – they are unexpected and always exciting. A vivid description of everything that the reporter saw, with his emotions, feelings, and impressions allows readers to feel the personal presence of the author, his «I». Thanks to the availability of a large amount of factual material, this report is especially valuable because it helps to feel the spirit of the era.
    Keywords: literary report, wanderings, Oirots (Altai), Altai, author.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

    1. Avras, L., Itkis, P. & Shmatko, V. (1931),Altyn-Tau (Golden Mountains): a Trip to Distant Altai, Molodyj biljshovyk, Kharkiv-Odesa, 88 p.
    2. Vaskiv, (2004), «Altai in the Ukrainian travel essay of the 1930s», Literaturnyj Proces: Metodologhija, Imena, Tendenciji. Filologhichni Nauky [Literary process: methodology, names, trends. Philological sciences], no. 3, pp. 89–94, available at:
    3. Vovk, V. & Rusakov, V. (1932), In the Country of Altyn-Tau: Travel Essays, Ukrajinsjkyj robitnyk, Kharkiv, 117
    4. Hzhytskyi, (1929), «Altai», Plugh [Plow], no. 9, pp. 44–59.
    5. Hzhytskyi, (2011), «Memories of the past. Heritage», Literary source studies, textology, Instytut literatury im. T. Gh. Shevchenka NAN Ukrajiny, Laurus, Т. IV, Kyiv, 502 p.
    6. Egart, (1932), Crossing. Altai Essays, DVU, Literatura i Mystectvo, Kharkiv-Kyiv, 172 p.
    7. Melnyk, V. (1995), «Days and nights of Vasyl Gzytskyi», Word and Time [Slovo i Chas], 9–10, pp. 17–21.
    8. Nytchenko, (1992), Letters of Writers, Vyd-vo «Lastivka», Melborn, 199 p.
    9. Pavliv, (2015), Report: Between Facts and Emotions. A Practical Guide for Journalists, Vydavnyctvo Ukrajinsjkogho katolycjkogho universytetu, Lviv, 120 p.
    10. In the Kazakh Altai: travel essays (1933), Vijsjkove vydavnyctvo «Na varti», 16 p.
    11. Prykhodko, (1993), Creative Portraits of Ukrainian Writers of the 20th century: a guide for universities and schools, Podillja, Khmelnytsky, 160 p.
    12. Sanovych, A. (1929), «Book of Facts», A New Generation [Nova Gheneracija], 3, pp. 56–62.
    13. Slutskyi, (1939), «On Oiratia. Altai», Universe [Universe], no. 4, pp. 19.
    14. Sobachko, O. (2006), «Ukrainian literary organizations and currents in the second half of the 20s of the 20th century», Scientific note of the Institute of Political and Ethnonational Studies named after I.F. Curas of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [Naukovi zapysku Instytutu politychnykh ta etnonacionaljnykh doslidzhenj im. I.F. Kurasa NAN Ukrajiny], vol. 32. pp.257–
    15. Tsymbal, (2016), «Flirting with Essay and Nonfiction», Paths under the sun. Report of the 20s, Tempora, Kyiv, pp. 5-18.
    16. Shkliar, V. (1999), Theory and Methodology of Journalistic Creativity: lecture notes, MILP, Kyiv, 31 p.

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Title: Sketch in the contemporary social-communication space: development trends


Havryliuk Inna

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 100–109

  • Havryliuk Inna, PhD (Social Communications), Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine, е-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. The contemporary stage of mass media development is marked by a change in the genre system. One of the genres that has almost disappeared from traditional media, but actively reacted to the emergence of the network space and became part of it, is undergoing transformational processes, is the sketch.
    Relevance and goal. Understanding the trends in the development of sketches at the current stage is relevant, as it provides an opportunity to look at the place and role of this genre in the social and communication space in a new way. The purpose of the study is to outline the trends in the functioning of the sketch genre in the contemporary social and communication space.
    Methodology. The research used the methods of scientific literature analysis, analysis and synthesis, typological analysis, and systematization. The chosen methods made it possible to find out the general features of the development of the sketch genre in the Ukrainian social and communication space.
    Results. A survey of traditional media showed that today the sketch is almost not presented in them. However, this genre has not completely disappeared, it cannot be classified as marginal. Currently, the sketch is undergoing a process of revival and transformation, reflecting those processes that are characteristic of the contemporary period of development of media activity – the era of post-journalism. Social networks have become a successful platform for its implementation, where this genre acquires a new genre dimension. The most optimal way to realize the genre “status” of a sketch is Facebook – a social communication platform that provides for small-format posts, an active authorial position, which is characteristic of the genre we are considering. The sketch adapts to the conditions of network discourse, so its genre model also changes: the presentation style is simplified, the visual component is strengthened, etc. The communicative approach to writing is also changing: from the genre of a professional sketch, it is transformed into a genre of amateur journalism. Network sketches became the catalyst of a new socio-communication phenomenon – network literature (virtual literature, Internet literature). Sketches “outgrow” the boundaries of social media and find a literary embodiment in individual publications. The modern media space is characterized by the functioning of both traditional types of sketches and the latest forms.
    Conclusions. Sketches are becoming more and more in demand in the modern social and communication space. This genre adapted to the requirements of the “network” discourse and became an integral part of it.
    Keywords: sketch, social communication space, social networks, “network literature”, Facebook.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

    1. Butyrina, M.V. (2017), “The main trends and constructs of post-journalism”, Visnyk Xarkivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni V. N. Karazina. Seriya : Socialni komunikaciyi [Bulletin of Kharkiv National University named after V. N. Karazin. Series: Social communications], iss. 12, рр. 9–13, available at:
    2. Voronova, M.Yu. (2006), “Character as a complex content category in a journalistic portrait@, available at:
    3. Gavrylyuk, & Samoxina, V. (2016), “Gloss as a genre of journalistic discourse”, Journalism education in Sumy Oblast: global professional standards: XII International Scientific and Practical Conference (Sumy, June 8–9, 2016), Sumy State University, Sumy, рр. 107–109.
    4. Gavrylyuk,L. (2011), “Modern Ukrainian columnism: peculiarities of development”, Zhurnalistyka [Journalism], iss. 10 (35), рр. 117–121.
    5. Gerasymenko, (2010), “Network literature: new form or content?”, Slovo i chas [Word and time], no. 10, рр. 64–71.
    6. Glushko, O.K. (2010), Artistic Journalism: European Traditions and Modernity : monograph., Aristei, Kyiv, 192 р.
    7. Gorlach, P. (2023), “The most popular Ukrainian films of the year on Takflix: “I work at the cemetery” and “Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors””, available at:
    8. Dacyuk, S. (2015), “Who is a blogger?”, Ukrayinska pravda [Ukrainian Pravda], available at:
    9. Dreshpak, V.M. (2021), Genreology of Journalistic Works: a study guide, UMSF, Dnipro, 186 р.
    10. Karpenko, V.O. (2002), Genres of Journalism as Forms of Mass Communication: text of the lecture, Institute of Journalism, Kyiv, 30 p.
    11. Myxajlyn, I.L. (2011), Basics of Journalism: tutorial, Center for Educational Literature, Kyiv, 496 р.
    12. Podolyan, M.P. (1998), Journalism as a System of Genres, Free Press Center, Kyiv, 42 p.
    13. Slavinska, (2011), “Network literature: how does a number become a letter?”, Ukrainian Pravda. Life, available at:
    14. Bidzilya, Yu.M. (Ed.) (2007), Journalist’s Dictionary: Terms, Mass media, Figures, Zakarpattia Publishing House OJSC, Uzhhorod, 224 р.
    15. Chekmyshev, O. (2021), Basics of Journalism, Center “Academy” Kyiv, 168 р.

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Title: Типологійні особливості сайтів польського академічного радіомовлення


Kovtun Natalia, Koval Svitlana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 110–122

  • Kovtun Natalia, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected],
    ORCID –;
    Koval Svitlana, Senior Lecturer, e-mail: [email protected],
    ORCID –
    Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Cherkasy, Ukraine.

    Introduction. Considering the rapid processes of convergence and digitalization, student radio stations have also begun operating online. Particularly illustrative in this regard are the websites of Polish radio stations, which position themselves as “Polish academic radio broadcasters.” In the context of the theme of our research, the concepts of Polish student radio, university radio, and academic radio are synonymous.
    Relevance of the study. The purpose of the study is to explore typological characteristics, content, and design of websites of Polish academic radio stations. For the first time, a generalized definition of the concept of «radio station website» and the classification of websites of student radio stations are proposed, typological features of Polish academic radio station websites are analyzed according to the identified criteria.
    Methodology. The work employs a number of interdisciplinary methods: analysis, synthesis, observation, monitoring, description, generalization, and systematization. Content analysis method is also applied to analyze the content of the websites.
    Results. It is established that all analyzed websites belong to informational-entertainment category by functional purpose; their content and categorization fully correspond to the orientation and information presentation style of the radio station; they conduct round-the-clock online broadcasting on their websites, utilizing various streaming capabilities. The design of the websites predominantly exhibits restrained aesthetics, catering to the preferences of the youth audience.
    Conclusions. The conducted analysis does not claim to be exhaustive but represents the first attempt to systematize existing types of websites of student radio stations. In the future, we plan to further study online student radio in detail.
    Keywords: online radio, radio station website, classification criteria and types of radio station websites, streaming of the radio, Polish academic radio stations.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: Representativeness of foreign lesya studies content in the electronic information space


Komova Мaria, Petrushka Alina

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 123–135

  • Komova Мaria, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected].;
    ORCID –
    Petrushka Alina, PhD (Social Communications), e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –
    Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine

    Introduction. Modern scientific understanding and interpretation of Lesya Ukrainka’s works, and their popularization using journalistic broadcasting, is a powerful resource that forms the intellectual, moral, and aesthetic framework of national culture.
    Relevance of the study. Social media and electronic information resources provide access to diaspora documents and help to reconsider the role and significance of Lesya Ukrainka’s creative heritage in the history of Ukrainian culture and formation of a civil society. The purpose of the study is to identify the representation of foreign Lesya studies content in the electronic information space.
    Methodology. The research methodology consists of analysis, synthesis, grouping, synchronous section, statistical, and logical generalizations, which made it possible to establish the representativeness and topics of publications about Lesya Ukrainka in the electronic information space. To form the analytical base of the research and statistical generalizations, online bibliographic resources, YouTube resources and Internet publications were used.
    Results. By the documentary and factual base of the electronic information space regarding the achievements of diaspora Lesya studies for 1940-2020, a set of publications belonging to different types was identified: works of poets, scientific works, memoirs, journalistic reports. The localization of centers of publishing activity in Lesya studies abroad was established. Scientific, public, and educational centers that contributed to the publication of Lesya Ukrainka’s works and works about her in the context of preserving and popularizing the national memory of the Ukrainian community in the diaspora was identified.
    Conclusions. The globality of the electronic information space contributes to the breaking down of territorial barriers, the development of the national scientific and cultural information space, and expands the boundaries of awareness of the unity of the Ukrainian national space. The popularization of Lesya Ukrainka’s creative heritage in social media contributes to the preservation of national identity based on the examples of highly intellectual literature, culture, science, and the formation of a pro-European, humanistic society.
    Keywords: lesya studies, electronic information space, popularization, new media, journalism.

    The article has been sent to the editors 10.01.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

  • 1. Baranivska, M. (2023), “Actress Katrin Deneuve read Lesya Ukrainka’s debut poem on TV5 Monde”, available at:
    2. Danylyuk, N.O. (2012–2016), Dictionary of the language of Lesya Ukrainka: based on the material of the collection «On the Wings of Songs» : in 2 parts, Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, part 1–2.
    3. Zabuzhko, O. (2018), Notre Dame d’Ukraine: Ukrainian woman in the conflict of mythologies, Kyiv.
    4. Cannes Film Festival 2023, “Catherine Deneuve Reads Lesya Ukrainka’s Poem «Hope»”, available at:
    5. Kosach-Kryvynyuk, O. (1970), Lesya Ukrayinka: chronology of life and creative work, New York, available at:
    6. Lesya Ukrainka in diaspora literary studies (2019), German-Ukrainian relations, proceedings of the 11th international scientific conference, Munich, April 4-7, available at:
    7. Stashenko, N.G. (2009), Lesya Ukrainka: Times and Creativity : a Collection of Scientific Articles: in 3 vol., Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, vol. 1–3.
    8. Stashenko, N. & Zhulynskyi, M. (2003–2010), Lesya Ukrainka and Modernity: Collection of Scientific Articles: in 6 vol. comp., Vezha, Lutsk, vol. 1–6.
    9. Moklytsia, M.V. (2011), Lesya Ukrainka’s Aesthetics: the Context of European Modernism: monograph., Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, 242 p.
    10. Povtoreva S.M. (2010), Structural Approach – Structuralism – Poststructuralism: Evolution of the Methodology and its Spread in Humanitarian Studies : monograph., Publishing House Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 332 p.
    11. Youtube, “Hello. Lesya”, available at:
    12. Youtube, “Lesya Ukrainka: another view of the Ukrainian writer”, available at:
    13. Pushnova, T.A. (2023), “Modern work about truth, feminism and anti-imperialism: Lesya Ukrainka’s «Cassandra» was translated and staged in Britain for the first time”, available at:
    14. Romanov, S.M. (2017), Lesya Ukrainka and Oleksandr Oles: on the Edge of Times, Worlds, Identities : monograph., Vezha-Druk, Lutsk, 500 p.
    15. Sokolova, V. (2019), “Gender transformations of the Pygmalion motif (O. Pchilka, L. Ukrainka, B. Shaw)”, Volyn filologichna: tekst i kontekst [Philological Volyn: text and context]: scientific collected works, Eastern European National University named after Lesya Ukrainka. Lutsk, vol. 28 : Olena Pchilka in the literary process abroad, рр. 96–119.
    16. National Library of Ukraine named after V. I., “Vernadskyi Lesya Ukrainka’s legacy in book publications of the Ukrainian diaspora (to the 150th anniversary of the writer’s birth)”, available at:
    17. Ukrainka, L. (1971), Boiarynia, New York.
    18. Ukrainka, L. (1971), Fire Lightning: Selection from Works, Publishing house of Union of Ukrainians in Great Britain, London, 194 p.
    19. Ukrainka, L. (1946), Poetry (Selected Works), Regensburg.
    20. Youtube, “A unique record of the memories of Izidora Kosach-Borisova, Lesya Ukrainka’s sister”, available at:
    21. Feminism, Surami and friendship with village children: on SiD FM, experts comment on the facts about Lesya Ukrainka, available at:
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    23. Yurchuk, O.O. (2011), “Anti-colonialism in the work of Lesya Ukrainka (based on the dramatic poem «Boyarynia»)”, Visnyk Zhytomyr. derzh. un-tu im. Ivana Franka. Filologichni nauky [Visnyk Zhytomyr. state University named after Ivan Franko. Philological sciences], vol. 55, рр. 163–166, available at:
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Title: Radio «Kultura» music content


Medynska Olesia, Hnatyshyn Solomiia

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 136–149

  • Medynska Olesia, PhD (Philology), Associate Professor, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    Hnatyshyn Solomiia, Lecturer, Ternopil I. Horbachevsky National Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].

    Introduction. Radio “Kultura” is a producer of musical intentions, a translator of traditions and innovations in modern musical art. The musical content of the analyzed media is characterized by a multifaceted musical palette. Informing about musical events and processes, radio “Kultura” becomes a unique platform for the actualization of musical culture, public discussion of musical issues, formation of worldview orientations and musical requests of the audience.
    Relevance and aim of the research. The relevance of scientific research is determined by the absence of research into the musical content of radio “Kultura” in the modern scientific discourse.
    The aim of the articles is to analyze musical content radio “Kultura” in the focus of the problem-thematic paradigm and media consumption.
    Methodology. While carrying out the research, general philosophical and general scientific (theoretical, empirical) methods were used, in particular, the method of terminological and conceptual analysis, analysis of scientific literature, synthesis, induction and deduction, generalization, monitoring, content analysis, online surveys, statistical analysis.
    Results. It has been clarified definition the concept of “musical content”. The problem-thematic range of materials was analyzed. An online survey was conducted of reception the audience musical content of radio “Kultura”.
    Conclusions. Having analyzed the music content of radio “Kultura”, we identified the main thematic groups: news of the musical life of Ukraine, the most important events in the field of world music, stories about outstanding musical figures, musical genres and styles, trends in the music industry at the local and global levels, cultural and musical events, innovations, etc. In the analyzed media, the problems of the functioning and transformation of folk music, the connection of the author/performer with other participants of the musical ecosystem, pricing in the industry, age and gender discrimination in show business, music piracy, etc. are actualized. The results of the survey state that the respondents choose radio “Kultura” consciously and rationally, taking into account the quality of the musical content, the reputation of the media, and thematic priorities. Musical content partially meets their informational expectations.
    Keywords: musical content, radio “Kultura”, public broadcaster, problem-thematic dominants, media consumption.

    The article has been sent to the editors 22.01.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

    1. Jolos, O. (2021), «Radio «Kultura» as cultural and educational PBCU radio station”, available at:
    2. Dorosh, M. (2013), «Cultural journalism: how to integrate into the format», available at:
    3. Zurab, A. (2017), “Development strategy of PBCU”, available at:
    4. Medynska, O., Kravets, S., Poplavska, I., Zadvornyj, S., Kuzyshyn, A. & Yanec, N. (2018), “Regional analysis of media coverage of cultural innovations in the context of european integration (on the example of Ternopil region, Ukraine)”, Studio Economic, Katowice, no. 353, pp. 125–141.
    5. Melnyk, L. (2011), “Interpretation of the musical journalism paradigm”, available at: docs/04_Melnyk.pdf.
    6. Melnyk, L. (2013), “Strategies of music journalism: aspects of history and practice”, available at: file:///Users/anastay/Downloads/mvkfm_2013_1(1)__27.pdf.
    7. Ostapa, S. (2018), “Public broadcasting in Ukraine: history of creation and challenges”, Kyiv, 156 p.
    8. The official website of Radio “Kultura”, available at: (accessed January 2021 – December 2021).
    9. Riznyk, O. (2018), «Some trends of the music radio air of Ukraine of the 21st century», available at:
    10. Slavinska, I. (2020), «Radio «Kultura»: «We are ready to experiment»», available at:
    11. Chernova, A., Butyrina, M. (2018), «Music journalism and music industry: specifics of interaction», available at:

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Title: Modern information society and the new period of journalism


Mitchuk Olga, Horbenko Halyna

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 150–157

  • Mitchuk Olga, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Professor, National University of water and environmental engineering, Rivne, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected];
    Horbenko Halyna, PhD (Pedagogic Sciences), Associate Professor, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv Metropolitan University, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].

    Introduction. The development of new information technologies makes corrections not only in science, but also in the media space. In the era of information globalization, the development of cross-media, in the era of information wars and the formation of new information and political communities, the problem of determining compromises between the functioning of civil society and media institutions has arisen.
    Relevance and purpose. The relevance of the research is outlined by studying the changes taking place in Ukrainian journalism. The goal is to determine the role and place of the mass media in social and political institutions as factors in ensuring the democratic and political rights and freedoms of citizens.
    Methodology. The methodological basis of the article is a combination of general scientific methods and special methods and approaches. The processing of the source base was based on the application of analytical-synthetic, logical methods, which helped to formulate a system of initial theoretical propositions, principles of selection, analysis and generalization of the research material. The methods of comparative-historical, analytical, interdisciplinary analysis and synthesis are also applied. Empirical research was conducted by the survey method.
    The results. The development of Ukrainian journalism in the new period of history is difficult, as there is a «persecution» of journalists and obstruction of their activities. In the current period of «clanization» of the Ukrainian media, there is a return to censorship and the transformation of pro-government mass media into means of propaganda, and the appearance or restoration of censorship in Ukraine at the beginning of the 21st century. depends on a number of events in recent history related to the actions of the government, the weakness of civil society, the absence of the rule of law, economic instability, the absence of a middle class, and the presence of a shadow sphere of politics and economics.
    Conclusions. The new world order in the information space creates new threats: the threat of distortion of the communication process in society regarding the perception of information; the threat of political control; the threat of new opportunities to manipulate public opinion.
    Keywords: mass media, information society, media space, journalism, cross media, information technologies, mass media.

    The article has been sent to the editors 14.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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    3. Code of ethics of a Ukrainian journalist. URL:
    4. Lebedeva-Guley, O. Z. (2006), «Development trends of Ukrainian newspaper journalism 1991–2006» URL:
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    8. Mitchuk, O. А, Krupskyi, I. V.(2023), «Information and communication activity: content and audience characteristics», Obraz [Image], Issue 1 (41). P. 46-54.
    9. Molodychenko, V. V. (2011), «Manipulation of values and means of securing youth from destructive ideological influences». Osvita rehionu. Ukrayinskyy naukovyy zhurnal. [Education of the region. Ukrainian scientific journal]. no. 2. pp. 58-59.
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    11. Rizun, V. V. (2003), Masy: lecture texts. Kyiv: KNU named after T. Shevchenko. 116 p.
    12. Ukrainian Institute of National Memory. 2000 – disappearance of Georgy Gongadze. URL: 2000 – зникнення Георгія Гонгадзе (

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Title: Media culture as a factor of public opinion formation in small towns


Оtrishko Mаryna, Kharkevych Natalya

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 158–167

  • Otrishko Mаryna, PhD student, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –
    Kharkevych Natalya, PhD (Historical Sciences), Associate Professor, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. In the modern world, where the information environment is saturated with informational noise and mass means of communication, media culture acquires an important status in the formation of public opinion. This is especially true for small towns, as they may be remote from global media streams.
    Relevance and purpose. Media culture becomes a key tool for understanding and analyzing information included in public discourse and influences the formation of people’s consciousness and views. The purpose of the article is to study media culture as an important element of public opinion formation in small towns of Ukraine through the prism of identifying perspectives of influence and control.
    Methodology. Conceptual foundations for the study of modern media culture and its impact on the cultural and social structure of society were laid in foundational theories such as Marshall McLuhan’s «global village» and Alvin Toffler’s «future shock». Content analysis of scientific literature was also used as the main research method.
    Results. The influence of media culture on the formation of public opinion in small towns is extremely significant, especially due to the limited media space, which makes its influence even more significant. In such conditions, the media play a decisive role in the coverage of events at the local and national levels, as well as in the formation of the cultural and social identity of the community. The study emphasizes the importance of media self-regulation and the development of professional ethics to ensure objectivity and credibility of information. Financial support for independent media, local media and ensuring the confidentiality of sources are identified as critical factors for ensuring the quality of information services in small towns. Also, raising the level of media literacy is an important element, key to critical thinking and fact-checking. Therefore, initiatives and programs aimed at improving media literacy among residents of small towns are recognized as essential.
    Conclusions. Media culture is an important part of the socio-cultural development of small towns. Mass media play a key role in covering local or national events. For this reason, mechanisms of control over the manipulation of mass media are of particular importance. The work emphasizes the importance of media literacy among the population of small towns. Therefore, individual programs and initiatives can contribute to increasing the level of media literacy among residents of small towns.
    Key words: public opinion, small towns, media literacy, identity, perspectives.

    The article has been sent to the editors 21.12.2023
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

    1. Otrishko, M. (2023), “Content transmission as a feature of the media culture of the information space of small towns in Ukraine”, Zbirnyk naukovykh prats II Vseukrainskoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii studentiv, aspirantiv ta molodykh naukovtsiv «Suchasnyi masovokomunikatsiinyi prostir: istoriia, realii, perspektyvy» [Collection of scientific works of the 2nd All-Ukrainian scientific and practical conference of students, postgraduates and young scientists “Modern mass communication space: history, realities, prospects”], Sumy, pp. 83–86.
    2. Rosinska, O. (2019), “The manipulative influence of media on consciousness in the conditions of information warfare”, Visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu. Seriia zhurnalistyka [Bulletin of Lviv National University. Journalism series], vol. 46, pp. 318–324, available at: (accessed 12.12.2023).
    3. Andersen, J. (2021), “Genre as digital social action: the case of archiving, tagging and searching in digital media culture”, Journal of Documentation, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 228–241, available at: (accessed 12.12.2023).
    4. Katerynych, P. (2023), “Propaganda at Play: A Thematic Analysis of Belarusian Media Narratives in the Context of the Russo-Ukrainian War”, Media Literacy and Academic Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 23–39, available at: (accessed 12.12.2023).
    5. Kellner, D. (2023), “Reading media culture politically”, Journal of political sociology, vol. 1, no. 1, available at: 12.12.2023).
    6. Klobušická, M. (2018), “Mass Media and Manipulation – ethical considerations”, Edukacja etyczna, vol. 14, pp. 75–94.
    7. McLuhan, M. (1964), Understanding Media: the extensions of man, New York, 1964, 320 p.
    8. Norton, M. (2018), “Meaning on the move: synthesizing cognitive and systems concepts of culture”, American journal of cultural sociology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–28, available at: 12.12.2023).
    9. Onilov, O. (2023), “Social Media, Television News and Protest Participation: A Post-Soviet Media Culture”, Palgrave Studies in Journalism and the Global South, Cham, pp. 127–154, available at: 12.12.2023).
    10. Rogers, R. & Niederer, S. (2020), “The politics of social media manipulation”, The Politics of Social Media Manipulation?, available at: 12.12.2023).
    11. Sikorska, V., Kozhanov, A. & Shypotilova, O. (2022), “Mediaculture of the modern personality as a tool of influence on the youth in the conditions of the Russian-Ukrainian war”, Functioning of the Ukrainian media during martial law in Ukraine, pp. 108–123, available at: 12.12.2023).
    12. Toffler, A. (1981), The third wave, New York, Bantam in association with W. Morrow, 1981, 354 p.
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Title: The Communication Convergence of Journalism and Public Releases


Tielietov Oleksandr, Tielietova Svitlana

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 168–177

  • Tielietov Oleksandr, D.Sc. (Economics), Professor, Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected];
    ORCID –
    Tielietova Svitlana, PhD (Philology), Associate Professor, Sumy State A. S. Makarenko Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. The article examines the essential characteristics of the journalism and PR convergence, the main reasons for this process, the key aspects of the specified mass communication types of interaction, the principles of media relations, the probable scenarios of the integration development of the journalism and PR and its consequences for both spheres are clarified.
    Relevance of the study. The study of various aspects of the interaction of media and public relations is extremely relevant, since in the modern media landscape these communicative practices increasingly influence each other. Understanding the consequences of their convergence helps to define new creative approaches to communication strategies, to adapt them to modern realities. The purpose of the article is to determine the convergent processes features, that have recently been taking place in the journalism and public relations field.
    Methodology. The research was carried out using the analysis of scientific sources, an analytical method, a systematic approach when considering the dynamics and relationship at different levels between journalism and public relations, a comparative method for identifying their common and distinctive features, monitoring the media space, which allows to find out the impact of certain PR strategies and tools for journalistic practices, method of theoretical generalization.
    The results. The main principles of media relations are indicated: the principle of trust, the reliability of information, bilateral observance of interests, consideration of development trends, communication style and ethical standards. The main convergent processes of journalism and public relations include: the use of similar tools and methods to achieve goals, the joint content creation that satisfies the needs of both parties, the joint management of information flows, the combination of journalistic approaches to the materials creation with PR strategies for attracting attention, the formation of the general professional responsibility sphere, conducting joint information campaigns and other events, creating a new media text format that combines the journalistic and PR text features, using the Internet as a channel, means and medium of communication.
    Conclusions. The novelty of the research consists in obtaining a clearer idea of the various mass communication types of hybridization in the digitalization of society conditions. As a result of convergent processes, journalism and public relations are becoming increasingly interdependent, which opens new opportunities for creating and disseminating information. This interaction leads to the transformation of both spheres, promotes their development, and increases the effectiveness of influencing the audience.
    Keywords: communications, mass media, journalism, public relations, convergence, information technologies, media environment.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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Title: Training of Applicants for Education in the Specialty 061 Journalism in Higher Education Institutions of Ukraine: Between Universalism and Specialization


Markova Victoriia

Obraz, 2024. Vol.1 (44). P. 178–187

  • Markova Victoriia, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Professor, Kharkiv State Academy of Culture, Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. Both in the professional and academic environment, there is an opinion about the crisis state of journalism education and the need for its reform. In the course of the discussion of the further development of journalism education, the issue of universalism and specialization is also raised.
    Relevance and purpose of the study. The relevance of the study is determined by the need to improve the quality of journalism education in Ukrainian universities on the basis of healthy competition of educational programs (EPs) that contain elements of uniqueness, one of which can be specialization. The purpose of the study is to find out the real state of the relationship between universalism and specialization in the approaches to the training of higher education seekers at the first (bachelor) and second (master) levels of higher education in the universities of Ukraine in the specialty 061 Journalism.
    Methodology. Typological and statistical analysis of data from the Single State Electronic Database on Education (SSEDE) for 2023 and its visualization in diagrams, as well as analysis of selected EPs regarding the representation of their uniqueness, the ratio of universal and specialized educational components. The methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization are used to interpret the research results.
    The results. The analysis of educational offers by level of education and their quantitative ratio by individual areas of activity (journalism, advertising and public relations, publishing and editing, etc.) revealed a paradoxical situation: with a small number of branch specializations, the majority of educational offers at the bachelor’s level and a significant number at the master’s level (36%) is offered by branch universities. A substantive analysis of EPs, which were called “Journalism” and were offered by branch-based universities, showed the absence of branch specialization in the vast majority of educational offers. The analysis of EP names showed that, for the most part, they do not show uniqueness at the level of names.
    Conclusions. The predominant trend in the training of specialists in the specialty 061 Journalism is universalism, which was revealed both at the level of titles of EPs and at the level of their content. This situation i snot healthy, because it is EPs that must compete on the market of educational services, which is possible under the condition of their uniqueness, both at the level of titles and at the level of the proposed content.
    Keywords: journalism education, educational program (EP), educational offer, universalism, specialization.

    The article has been sent to the editors 15.02.2024
    Recommended for publication 11.03.2024

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