Issue 3 (43) ’ 2023

Issue 3 (43) ’ 2023

Obraz. – Issue 3 (43). – 2023



Title: «Democratic Tsunami» as an online stage of the Catalan independence movement


Zinichenko Vladyslav, Udovenko Anna

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 6–17

  • Zinichenko Vladyslav, PhD student, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, e-mail: [email protected];
    Udovenko Anna, PhD student, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Educational and Scientific Institute of Journalism, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].

    Introduction. Catalan independence is an issue that has shaken Spanish politics not even for years, but for centuries. In 2012, an overwhelming majority in parliament was received by MPs who announced the Declaration of Sovereignty. In 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain. In turn, the Spanish authorities arrested the initiators of this decision. Protesters took to the streets against the jailing of Catalan separatist leaders. Thus, it led to the emergence of a new protest group “Democratic Tsunami” that left a significant imprint in the struggle for the independence of the region.
    Research aims. To describe the “Democratic Tsunami” from the points of origins, its members, organizational structure, strategies and tactics, published content, symbols, ideology, impact and state response.
    Methodology. The main methods are secondary data analysis (two stages) and qualitative content analysis (649 tweets). The research period is from August 2019 to February 2020. The necessary data were collected from mass media websites and social media platforms.
    Results. The available data allow us to single out the communication strategies of the “Democratic Tsunami” and present their examples. The scientific article describes the operation of various online communication tools (social media, mobile application) that were used by the movement to achieve its goals. It is important to note that the Spanish authorities were not ready to confront new technologies. The studied practices can be borrowed and used in any country of the world for similar purposes and processes.
    Conclusions. Although the “Democratic Tsunami” lasted only six months, it was able to take the pro-independence movement to a new level of development. The main feature was the work with social media platforms and the mobile application. These movement’s tools simplified the process of mobilization and coordination between leaders and protesters. They created the mechanism to transform the Catalan independence movement into a more private and highly protected protest community.
    Keywords: Spain, Catalonia, Democratic Tsunami, social movement, online communication.

    The article has been sent to the editors 04.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

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Title: Resilience of future journalists as a response to the challenges of the profession


Yevtushenko Olena, Kovalova Tetiana

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 18–27

  • Yevtushenko Olena, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, NetCracker Technology Corporation, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –
    Kovalova Tetiana, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, Sumy State University, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    Introduction. In their work, journalists encounter many stressful and potentially psychologically traumatic events. Even journalists who do not work in war zones are at risk of developing PTSD or other mental health issues. In the conditions of a full-scale war, the question arises how to prepare future journalists for such psychologically challenging work.
    Relevance of the study. The development of resilience skills can be a response to the challenges of the journalism profession. Researchers and practicing journalists have been increasingly discussing resilience in recent years. However, in Ukrainian educational institutions, this skill has not yet received due attention. The relevance of our research lies in addressing a topic that is not sufficiently developed in both science and practice. The aim of the article is to outline the role of resilience as a necessary skill in the training of future journalists.
    Methodology. A complex of scientific methods was used to achieve the goal of the article. Methods of analysis, generalization and comparison were used to formulate the theoretical foundations of the research. The empirical research was carried out by the survey method using the following psychodiagnostic questionnaires: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD RISC-10), Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), S. Maddi Hardiness Scale.
    Results. Resilience is the ability to effectively adapt to complex life experiences, endure adversities in a way that promotes bouncing back or even bouncing beyond. Professional organizations and media for journalists emphasize the importance of this skill. However, only a few educational institutions abroad offer specialized courses for developing this skill. The urgency of developing resilience in Ukrainian journalism students is evidenced by the data from a pilot study, which showed that about 40 % of respondents had a low level of resilience.
    Conclusions. The pilot study indicates that a significant portion of surveyed journalism students may be unprepared for the psychological challenges of their future profession. Therefore, it is crucial to develop recommendations for journalism department staff regarding the development of students’ resilience.
    Keywords: resilience, journalism skills, student training, journalistic ethics.

    The article has been sent to the editors 03.07.2023
    Recommended for publication 16.10.2023

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Title: Public idioms and nominalisation in news discourse


Zrazhevska Nina

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 28–36

  • Zrazhevska Nina, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Professor, Boris Grinchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected]..
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. The analysis of news discourse is constantly in the trend of scientific research, since the very concept of discourse implies fluidity and continuity, and news as a genre represents a special form of narration that can be considered through the communicative function of language, which can be revealed through speech acts, that is, through discursive social practice. The use of public idioms sometimes creates an impression of authority and professionalism in the media, which affects the readers’ perception of the material. Nominalisation is also used to create the effect of undisputed objectivity in news writing, which can make it difficult to understand the text. These language practices are sometimes used as a communicative tool of social coercion, soft assent or resistance to readers’ persuasion, to shape discussions about war and conflicts.
    Relevance of research. The article aims to show how public idioms and nominalisation are presented in news discourse and what communicative tasks they can perform. The task of the research is to reveal the special role of public idioms and nominalisation in news discourse, which can be specific markers of the cultural and ideological field and which, when carefully read, reveal the resource possibilities of media discourse. The object of the research is public idioms and nominalisation in news discourse.
    The research methodology: Analytical-synthetic method made it possible to analyze the latest research in the field of news discourse, which made it possible to expand the idea of the use of discursive practices in foreign media and, accordingly, follow them on the material of domestic news. Discourse analysis provided tools for analyzing the language of the media through the social context in accordance with the communicative goal, based on the linguistic theory as “social semiotics” – the study of the text as a process of formation of the semiotic system due to interests and ideology.
    Results and discussion. Public idioms play a special role in the analysis of news discourse as markers of a special cultural and ideological field, and syntactic figures of nominalisation, which upon careful reading reveal the resource possibilities of media discourse. Considering the communicative component of news discourse, it should be noted that public idioms and nominalization as unifying and expressive elements can mobilize the audience to action and form a desire for change, activity or response to certain problems, challenges, and draw public attention to certain phenomenon.
    Conclusions and prospects. News discourse is a special genre, where the accuracy of information transmission limits the practices of manipulation, but at subtle discursive levels media coercion and media control occur at first sight imperceptible, in particular, through the use of public idioms and nominalisation. The proposed approach opens wide opportunities for further research on public idioms and nominalisation in media discourse through ideal, interpersonal and textual functions. The analysis of news discourse should be expanded to include structural, communicative, multimodal and other scientific directions to intensify the convergence of theoretical and methodological attitudes.
    Keywords: public idioms, discourse, media discourse, news, nominalization, media force.

    The article has been sent to the editors 12.06.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

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Title: The Ethics’ Crisis of Visual Representation of War (the Photography’s Dimension)


Lysenko Lesia

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 37–46

  • Lysenko Lesia, PhD (Social Communications), Poltava V.G. Korolenko National Pedagogical University, Poltava, Ukraine, e-mail:[email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. Digital photography, mobile technologies, and social platforms have actualized the problem of the ethics of representation and contemplation of cruelty, violence, and death. In Russian-Ukrainian war’s context, the topic’s relevance is due to the ongoing discussions in the public space about the appropriateness of disseminating photographs that depict violence or suffering.
    Relevance of the study. The relevance is due to the role of photo facts in the construction of media reality, social attitudes and individual experiences. The goal is to systematize the conceptual dominants of the debate on the ethics of photographic representation of war.
    Methods. On the basis of empirical analysis, the main components of the scientific problem are updated, in particular the subject of research, its scientific and applied contexts. The system analysis was used in the work with the theoretical base of the research and establishment of interdisciplinary connections in the discussion about the ethical and aesthetic modes of functioning of sensitive media content, the problems of photorepresentation of war in the media. Comparative, analytical and descriptive methods ensured the disclosure of the features of the ethical-aesthetic paradigm of the media essence of photography. Generalization and synthesis made it possible to argue the conclusions, to find out their correspondence to the tasks.
    Results. Based on the systematization of the representatives’ concepts of various scientific fields (photography theorists, philosophers, art historians, social communication researchers, etc.), it is proved that ethical issues related to the creation, distribution, and perception of sensitive content relate to different contexts: exploitation and retraumatization, affect and aestheticization, objectification and politicization. Scholars and experts focus on a critical analysis of the nature and extent of the viewer’s participation in the visual field, the modes of civic engagement and the inherent empathic, sentimental and passive response.
    Сonclusions. The study focuses on the role of sensitive war photographs in the construction of a political space in which the need for the visual as testimony, the right to advocacy, and the recognition of a crime are actualized. In turn, the visual intolerance of the represented violent act or suffering provokes a discussion of the problem of aestheticizing images as a dilemma between deliberate embellishment and identification of formal and compositional expressive means of photography.
    Keywords: photography, photography about war, digital photography, ethics, manipulation.

    The article has been sent to the editors 07.07.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

    1. Bushkovska, N. (2023, January 17), “The danger of artificial intelligence images of the alleged tragedy in Dnipro”, Bez Brehni [Without Lies], available at: (accessed 28 June 2023).
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Title: Television broadcasting of the Sumy region during the period of martial law: problems and challenges


Kyrylenko Oksana

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 47–58

  • Kyrylenko Oksana, PPhD student, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. From the first day of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the majority of regional broadcasters and program service providers of Sumy Oblast found themselves in the zone of active hostilities. Therefore, the description of the work of border regional broadcasters during martial law is extremely relevant.
    Relevance of the study.
    The proposed study will provide an opportunity to learn the practical experience of border regional TV broadcasters of Sumy Oblast in war conditions, to identify problem areas that need to be eliminated, and the reactions of the media community and the state to them.
    During the work on the research, a number of general scientific methods and techniques were used, including interviews with the heads of regional TV channels of Sumy Oblast, monitoring, content analysis, descriptive, analysis and synthesis.
    It was found that the majority of TV and radio companies and software service providers of the Sumy region work today in difficult financial and economic conditions, their activities are affected by such factors as a lack of personnel; danger during business trips; emotional burnout and anxiety disorders; loss of confidence in financial stability; end of grant support and inability to finance work; stoppage of the advertising market; attacks on websites; loss of competitive advantages in the media environment. In addition, the threat of a repeated attack by the Russian army from the north and north-east is not excluded; new intense attacks on critical infrastructure will lead to blackouts and the absence of communication and the Internet. Despite this, the TRC of the region showed considerable solidarity in the most acute period, did not stop broadcasting and continue to work. Although it is becoming more and more difficult to do this every day. Currently, private media survive on the principle: «Make money for salaries or close the company» The financial component comes to the fore, which is a dangerous signal. As for the Public Broadcaster, the reformation (creation of a system of regional HUBs) worsened the position of regional branches. Regional broadcasters on the ground are currently not associated as separate “players”. Therefore, under such conditions, regional television companies cannot be as efficient as possible and fully fulfill their task of providing citizens with high-quality information services.
    The state already needs to think about the perspective of regional broadcasters’ functioning and their support, especially those broadcasters who work in border areas and are an informational outpost of Ukraine.
    Keywords: regional broadcasters, television and radio companies (TRC), Sumy, problems, martial law.

    The article has been sent to the editors 03.07.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

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    10. Usmanova, O.V. & Ziborova, A.O. (2023), “Social networks are a platform for the operation of a regional TV channel during the war”, Molodyj vchenyj [A young scientist], no. 1 (113), рр. 56–59.
    11. Fenko, N.M. (2020), “Public broadcasting: national mission and regional challenges”, Vcheni zapysky TNU imeni V. I. Vernadskogo. Seriya: Filologiya. Zhurnalistyka [Scientific notes of TNU named after V. I. Vernadskyi. Series: Philology. Journalism], vol. 31 (70), no. 2, part 4, рр. 229–233.
    12. Cherednyk, L.A. (2022), “ Activities of the Ukrainian mass media during the Russian-Ukrainian war”, Bibliotekoznavstvo. Dokumentoznavstvo. Informologiya [Library science. Documentary science. Informatology], no. 2, рр. 75–81.
    13. Yacyna, A. (2023), “Media landscape of Sumy Oblast – 2022: how media of the region lived and worked this year”, available at:

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Title: The radio broadcasting formation in Sumy region in the 20-30s of the 20th century


Pohorielova Valentyna

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 59–69

  • Pohorielova Valentyna, PhD student, Sumy State University, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. The development of radio broadcasting in Sumy region is ambiguous. On the one hand, this process took place in the context of the development of radio broadcasting in Soviet Ukraine in general, on the other hand, it had certain features that were due to a number of both objective and subjective reasons, in particular, the territorial and administrative structure of Sumy region in the 20-30s 20th century.
    Relevance and goal. 
    The relevance of the research lies in the fact that it makes it possible to introduce unknown or little-known facts related to the formation of radio broadcasting in the 20-30s of the 20th century into the scientific circulation of journalism in Sumy region.
    The goal of the article is to organize data on the peculiarities of the formation of radio broadcasting in Sumy region in the 20-30s of the 20th century.
    Historical, retrospective methods, the method of document analysis and system analysis were used to study the outlined issue.
    The results. 
    Radiofication in the Sumy region began in 1920 and was determined by the socio-economic need – the delivery of information to the population in the shortest possible way, and the mobilization of workers. First of all, “radio” came to the northern district towns of Sumy region, where industry was most developed. 1920–1922 were key in the spread of radio on the territory of Sumy region.
    The next stage of radio broadcasting dates back to 1924, it is connected with the beginning of its own broadcasting in Ukraine. The number of receiving radio stations is increasing. Attention was also paid to rural areas, especially to those settlements where the process of collectivization was successful.
    We have been observing the revival of radiography since the beginning of the 30s of the 20th century. This was especially true in rural areas. The spread of radio broadcasting was mostly entrusted to local organizations – collective farms, cooperatives, etc., which were supposed to provide funds.
    The final stage of radio broadcasting in Sumy region was the creation of the Sumy region State Radio Studio in August 1939.
    The process of radio broadcasting in Sumy region in the 20-30s of the 20th century reflects the main stages and regularities that occurred at that time in general. However, the territorial-administrative structure of the Sumy region had a significant influence on him.
    Key words: radio broadcasting, radiofication, radio stations, 20-30s of the 20th century, Sumy region. 

    The article has been sent to the editors 04.08.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

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    18. Sorokina, L. Sumy region. History of formation, State archive of the Sumy region, available at:
    19. Tolochko, N.V. (2022), “The birth of radio broadcasting in Transcarpathia: socio-historical context”, available at:

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Title: «The Sigma Awards» data journalism projects: features of visual content


Solodovnyk Dmytro

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 70–84

  • Solodovnyk Dmytro, PhD student, Sumy State University, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. Data visualization plays a crucial role in creating high-quality materials in data journalism; it is precisely the successful way of presenting information that depends on its comprehensibility, accessibility, and “virality” for the audience. The worldwide award, “The Sigma Data Journalism Awards,” winners are a kind of role model and trend indicator in data journalism.
    That is why the study aimed to analyze the key characteristics and elements of data visualization in the noted data journalism projects, as well as to identify changes that may occur in the techniques and methods of data presentation over time.
    Research methods.
    The method of comparative content analysis, methods of synthesis and generalization, as well as logical and chronological methods, were used.
    As a result, 21 winners of “The Sigma Data Journalism Awards” chosen over three years (2020, 2022, 2023) were analyzed exclusively from the point of view of data visualization. In developing 3D modeling technologies, editors actively use these methods to improve communication effectiveness with the audience and increase their interest. Gamification is also noted as an innovative tool that increases the interactive component of visual objects. Maps, photographs, diagrams, and audio recordings remain relevant methods in data journalism, while infographics are used less and less in the projects noted. Leading newsrooms that actively create materials in data journalism are The New York Times, ABC News, and Civio, while ProPublica, Pointer, and stand out as leading media outlets specializing in the analysis and use of data. According to the study results, the recognized journalists noted in the visualization of data journalism are R. Dottle, Y-H. Law and J. Coburn.
    The obtained results can be useful for further research, which consists in conducting a statistical content analysis of the visualization of data journalism in the leading global newsrooms identified in this study (The New York Times, ABC news and Civio).
    Keywords: data journalism, visualization, Data Journalism Awards, 3D modeling, gamification.

    The article has been sent to the editors 09.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

    1. Shevchenko, V. (2016), “Formation of the media product concept”, Obraz [Image], n 4(22), pp. 6–14.
    2. Shevchenko, (2012), “Visualization of information in mass media”, The world of social communications [The world of social communications], no. 7, pp. 78–81.
    3. Rudchenko, (2017), “Infographics and dynamic visualization as a trend of modern media”, Crossmedia: content, technologies, perspective s: collective monogr., Department of Multimedia Technologies and Media Design of the Institute of Journalism of Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, pp. 75–82.
    4. Vorona, (2017), Visual concepts of non-verbal communication of a Ukrainian magazine (on the example of cultural and educational magazines 1991–2013), Abstract of the PhD dissertation (social communications), Kyiv National University named after Taras Shevchenko, Institute of Journalism, 18 р.
    5. Lichenko, (2019), “Interactive visualization as a way of presenting big data in the media”, Visnyk Lvivskogo universytetu. Ceriya Zhurnalistyka. [Bulletin of Lviv University. Journalism series], iss. 45. pp. 230–237, available at:
    6. Tsukanova, (2013), “Infographics as an effective visual component of an advertising message”, Gumanitarna osvita v texnichnyx vyshhyx navchalnyx zakladax [Scientific notes of the Institute of Journalism], no.50, pp. 129–133.
    7. Shved, (2014), “Infographics as a means of visual communication in modern journalism”, Gumanitarna osvita v texnichnyx vyshhyx navchalnyx zakladax [Humanitarian education in technical higher educational institutions], no. 3, pp. 305–313.
    8. Burdina, (2016), “Infographics on television: the influence of infotainment on the visualization of facts”, Socialni komunikaciyi [Social communications], no. 3, pp. 75–78.
    9. Shamanska, (2018), “Data visualization trends in modern online mass media”, Mizhnarodnyj naukovyj zhurnal Internauka [International scientific journal Internauka], no. 9, pp. 32–36.
    10. Rodríguez, T., Nunes, S., & Devezas, T. (2015), “Telling stories withdata visualization”, Proceedings of the 2015 Workshop on Narrative & Hypertext -NHT ’15, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    11. Weber, & Rall, H. (2012), “Data Visualization in Online Journal-ism and Its Implications for the Production Process”, 16th In-ternational Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 349–356, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    12. McMillan, (2006), Exploring Models of Interactivity from Multiple Research Traditions: Users, Documents and Systems : The Handbook of New Media, SAGE, London, Thousand Oaks, New Dehli, pp. 205–229.
    13. Stalph, (2017), “Classifying Data Journalism”, Journalism Practice, no. 12(1), pp. 1332–1350, available at:
    14. Cordoba-Cabus, , & Garcia-Borrego, M. (2020), “Visualisations as a critical information source for data journalism. Analysis of the typology, interactivity, and functions in the 2019 Data Journalism Awards”, Doxa Comunicación, no. 31, pp. 87–105.
    15. The Sigma Awards (2023), The best data journalism from around the world, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    16. The Sigma Awards, Young journalist – year 2020, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    17. FiveThirtyEight, Where Democrats And Republicans Live In Your City, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    18. FiveThirtyEight, Which 2020 Contender Has The Widest Appeal? You Tell Us, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    19. FiveThirtyEight, How Widespread Is Your College Football Fan Base?, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    20. FiveThirtyEight, A Tale Of Two Suburbs, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    21. FiveThirtyEight, The 2020 endorsement pool, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    22. FiveThirtyEight, The Movement To Skip The Electoral College Is About To Pass A Major Milestone, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    23., WARTIME DISINFO FROM RUSSIA, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    24. Pointer, The story behind an identity theft, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    25. The New York Times, See How the World’s Most Polluted Air Compares With Your City’s, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    26. The New York Times, What the Tulsa race massacre destroyed, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    27. Propublica, The Smoke Comes Every Year. Sugar Companies Say the Air Is Safe, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    28. ARIJ, Lanes of Death in East Cairo, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    29. THE MARSHALL PROJECT, Millions of People With Felonies Can Now Vote, Most Don’t Know It. available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    30. Moruroa files, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
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    32. Pointer, Het Digitale Leger, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    33. Civio, Who’s paid for the work?. Four companies won one in ten euros from 2020 Spanish emergency contracts, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    34. Lighthouse reports, Reconstructing the Melilla Massacre, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    35. Der Spiegel, Frontex in illegale Pushbacks von Hunderten Flüchtlingen involviert, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
    36. Macaranga, Forest plantations in reserves: quick to cut, slow to grow, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
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    40. The Markup, Dollars to Megabits, You May Be Paying 400 Times As Much As Your Neighbor for Internet Service, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
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    42. Streetsblog, Always scared: Dangerous Streets Outside City Schools Threaten Children, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).
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    44. PBS, Documented events involving potential war crimes in Ukraine, available at: (accessed October 5, 2023).

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Title: Book merch on the Tiktok social network


Podоlyakа Nadia

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 85–92

  • Podоlyakа Nadia, PhD (Social Communications), Associate Professor, Mykola Gogol Nizhyn State University, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. The article examines the practices of using the Tiktok social network to promote book merch and popularize books. An analysis of specialized pages offering merch and booktoker channels that cooperate with publishing houses in disseminating information about new products, as well as publishing house pages in tiktok, was carried out.
    Relevance of research.
    The source base of the research was the websites of book publishers and pages of booktubers in the Tiktok social network. This made it possible to get an idea of how the social network is used in the book business and how much merch helps to develop reader tastes and preferences, create a better product, attract new users to buy books. It is argued that the topic is almost not developed in the scientific environment, a comprehensive study of the experience of using tiktok in the promotion of book products and merch products has not taken place, and therefore researchers have the opportunity to expand the boundaries of understanding the tools of the platform.
    Traditional methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, induction and deduction are used. The descriptive method was used to interpret the researched phenomena in the book business. Among the specialized methods, we note the method of continuous sampling of accounts of the largest publishing houses of Ukraine, which have official pages on the platform, as well as accounts of top booktube pages that offer merch products.
    The results.
    Unboxing videos of book boxes, which also include book merch, scented candle sets, bookmarks and art cards featuring the book’s main characters, bracelets and pendants, have proven to be the most popular online. Among the problematic issues, the fact that the vast majority of tiktokers pay attention to bright packaging, almost not focusing on the content of books, due to which the value of the book, its social significance, its educational and cognitive functions is lost. Instead, it promotes aesthetic pleasure and entertainment, which are embedded in the original design of the platform itself.
    So, the scientific community has yet to evaluate the benefits or harms of the platform, but it already provides an opportunity to expand the circle of book and reading lovers, even at the expense of bright videos and attractive merch products.
    Keywords: тikтok, social networks, merch, book promotion, book business.

    The article has been sent to the editors 09.07.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

  • 1. “Generation Zed is more likely to use TikTok to search instead of traditional Google”, available at:
    2. Mudra, I. (2022), “TikTok as a promising channel for medi” popularization”, Visnyk Nacionalnogo Universytetu “Lvivska politexnika”. Seriya: “Zhurnalistyka” [Bulletin of the Lviv Polytechnic National University. “Journalism» series”], vol. 13, рр. 67–73.
    3. Anna Kotlyarevska, available at:
    4. «Harry Potter» affects people’s tolerance”, available at:
    5. “A set of three overlays based on the Crystal Castle trilogy”, available at:
    6. “The writer from Mykolaiv became a laureate of the international German-Ukrainian prize”, available at:

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Title: Media Events as a Tool for Constructing Media Reality (A Case Study of russian Propaganda)


But Kristina

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 93–101

  • But Kristina, PhD student, Zaporizhzhia National University, Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine., e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. The full-scale russian invasion has led to the temporary occupation of hundreds of Ukrainian cities and villages in Zaporizhzhia region. In September 2022, russians conducted so-called referendums in the newly occupied territories, aimed at attempting to legitimize the seizure of sovereign Ukrainian territory. In their efforts to advance occupation policy, shape a positive image among local residents, and garner international support, russians actively use propaganda and construct a media reality regarding the newly occupied lands. A wide range of tools is used for its creation, including media events.
    Relevance of the study. As media events significantly influence public opinion formation, we consider it relevant to analyze their role in constructing media reality, using example of the temporarily occupied territories of Zaporizhzhia region.
    Methodology. The research used such methods monitoring, methods of analysis and synthesis, and systematization. To achieve the research objective, materials from pro-russian Telegram channels in Zaporizhzhia region were reviewed: Zaporizhzhia Vestnik, Vladimir Rogov, #YouthSouth for the period from June to September 2022.
    Results. It has been determined that media events are used for constructing media reality, as they have an impact on shaping public opinion. Additionally, it has been identified that among the media events utilized by russian propagandists in the Zaporizhzhia region are flash mobs, exhibitions, campaigns, cleanup activities, concerts, volunteer events, talent shows, and agitation. The analysis of these media events indicates that their primary objective is to foster loyalty toward russia among Ukrainians in the temporarily occupied territories and create a fake legitimization of the occupation.
    Conclusions. We analyzed the russian media reality, constructed for influencing citizens of temporarily occupied territories. We believe that understanding the role of media events in constructing media reality serves as a supplementary means of comprehending media environment in the temporarily occupied territories and for the future reintegration of residents.
    Keywords: propaganda, media reality, media events, public events, temporarily occupied territories of the Zaporizhzhia region.

    The article has been sent to the editors 04.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

  • 1. Brudnytska, L. (2004), “Symbolism of Advertising Reality as a Modeled Dream”, Kultura narodov Prychernomorya [Culture of the Black Sea Peoples], vol. 2(49), pp. 37–38.
    2. But, K. (2023), “Media Reality as a Means of Influencing Public Opinion (on the Example of Temporarily Occupied Territories of Zaporizhzhia Region)”, Derzhava ta rehiony [State and Regions], vol. 3 (55). pp. 17–29.
    3. But, K. (2022), “What’s Wrong with Youth Initiatives in Temporarily Occupied Territories”, Mediahramotnist u rehionakh Ukrayiny [Media Literacy in Ukrainian Regions], аvailable at: (date of access: October 1, 2023).
    4. Heroes and Celebrities in Ukrainian Culture, (1999), Ed. by O. Hrytsenko, UTSKD, Kyiv, 352 p.
    5. Ivanova, O., Moyseeva, O., & Steblina, N. (2019), Local Press: A Handbook for Media. How Regional Journalists Work in the Age of New Media and Democracy Crisis : Handbook, Ed. by O. Ivanova, LLC «Businesspoligraf», Kyiv, 232 p., available at: (date of access: October 1, 2023).
    6. Rivlina, V.M. (2018), “Mediatization of Culture: Terminological Analysis”, Derzhava ta rehiony [State and Regions], vol. 3(35), рр. 22–26.
    7. Cherniavska L. Communication Model of the Ukrainian Media Space : extended abstract of dissertation . . . of Doctor of Sciences of Social Communications : 27.00.01. Kyiv, 2020. 39 p. URL: (date of access: 01.10.2023).
    8. Boorstin, D.J. (1992), The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, Vintage Books, New York, 319 p.
    9. Pilkington, E. (2009), “Barack Obama’s Inauguration Speech… Crafted by a 27-Year-Old in Starbucks”, The Guardian, аvailable at: (date of access: October 1, 2023).
    10. Rushkoff, D. (1994), Media Virus, Random House Australia, 338 p.

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Title: Ways of expressing emotional reactions as a communicative practice of social media users


Solomenko Lina

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 102–110

  • Solomenko Lina, Lecturer, Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Ukraine, e-mail: [email protected].
    ORCID –

    ​​Introduction. The current martial law in Ukraine for 1.5 years now requires a study of indirect ways of communication between Ukrainians in the absence of a permanent telephone connection, interruptions in Internet connection, and, accordingly, an urgent need to use the possibilities of online communication with a delayed response.
    Relevance and purpose.
    One of the simplest and most convenient communication practices in social networks and messengers is to mark an emotional reaction, which can be used even in the absence of an Internet connection in a delayed mode. Therefore, it is necessary to study the question of what purpose and how consciously Ukrainian social media users use this communication practice. In view of this, the purpose of our article is to find out the peculiarities of using graphic images to indicate emotional reactions of social media users as a communicative practice, in particular in the current conditions of the full-scale invasion of Russia.
    To achieve this goal, we used the following methods: searching for scientific sources on the topic of sign-visual communication and analyzing them, describing ways to indicate emotional reactions of users of social networks and messengers, a survey by questioning the target audience (Ukrainians aged 16 and older, divided into 6 age groups who use social networks and messengers) using a Google form that allowed them to choose three answers and/or add their own answer.
    The study found that the purpose of using likes for more than 85% of Ukrainian users is to support the author of the post (joy, sympathy, etc.). At the same time, almost 60% of respondents approach the process of marking a post deliberately and consciously.
    The novelty of the study is that for the first time an attempt was made to establish the purpose and nature of the use of likes as a communication practice by Ukrainian users of social networks and messengers. The potential significance of the research results lies in the need to conduct educational work on the use of various graphic signs to denote the entire range of emojis within a particular social network or messenger. Prospects for further research are to study other communication practices of Ukrainians within social networks and messengers.
    Key words: social networks, communication practices, like, smile, emoji.

    The article has been sent to the editors 30.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

  • 1. Bilous, AO. (2017), Logical and Rhetorical Analysis of Internet Discourse: PhD diss. (philos. sci.), Kyiv, 238 p.
    2. Нavrylyuk, I.L. (2020), “Visual content of local online journalism: modern trends and problems”, Obraz [Image], no. 1(33), рр. 51–56.
    3. “Emoji (Emoji) – what are they and why are they needed”, available at:
    4. “Smile. Word work”, available at:
    5. “Emoticons from symbols: the best emotions and gestures”, available at:
    6. “List of GIFs for Telegram”, available at:
    7. Troyanov, S. (2020), “Emojis in Viber”, available at:
    8. Udris, N.S. (2015), “Visual communication in the conditions of social transformations: renewal of semantic space”, Visnyk Xarkivskogo nacionalnogo universytetu imeni V. N. Karazina. Seriya: Sociologichni doslidzhennya suchasnogo suspilstva: metodologiya, teoriya, metody [Bulletin of Kharkiv National University named after V. N. Karazin. Series: Sociological studies of modern society: methodology, theory, methods], iss. 35, рр. 60–66.
    9. Chemerkin, S. (2010), “The language of emoticons, or new signs in language. Language culture for everyday life”, available at:
    10. Shevchenko, V.E. (2013), Forms of Visualization in a Modern Journal: monograph., A.V. Palivoda Publishing House, Kyiv, 340 p.
    11. Shkamarda O.A. (2021), Positioning of the Subject of Discursive Activity in an English-language Internet blog: PhD diss. (philol. sci.), Lutsk – Zaporizhzhia, 225 p.
    12. Yatsimirska, M. (2015), “Visual texts in social networks (reflections, conclusions, emotions)”, Visnyk Lvivskogo universytetu. Seriya: Zhurnalistyka [Bulletin of Lviv University. Series: Journalism], iss. 40, рр. 361–369.
    13. Bessarab, A., Hyrina, T., Sytnyk, O., Kodatska, N., Yatchuk, O. & Ponomarenko, L. (2022), @The Modern Transformation of Internet Communications”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 100, iss. 15, рр. 4710–4722, available at:
    14. Seiter, C. (2016), “The Secret Psychology of Facebook: Why We Like, Share, Comment and Keep Coming Back”, available at:

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Title: Models of the use of Artificial Intelligence in the context of life practices of Ukrainian youth


Ryzhko Olena, Kraіnikova Tetіana, Kraіnikov Eduard

Obraz, 2023. Issue 3 (43). P. 111-122

  • Ryzhko Olena, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected],
    ORCID –;
    Kraіnikova Tetіana, D.Sc. (Social Communications), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected],
    ORCID –;
    Kraіnikov Eduard, PhD (Pychology), Associate Professor, e-mail: [email protected],
    ORCID –;
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    ​​Introduction.Artificial intelligence (AI) technology penetrates into the life practices of young people. At the same time, a problem arises: young people in society, given their psychophysiological features, are the layer, on the one hand, the most adaptable to technologies, and on the other hand, the most vulnerable to them.
    Relevance and purpose.
    AI gives young people a new communicative experience, new grounds for the formation of the Self, new ways of integration into society (or reintegration), which applies not only to the modern world, but also to the future world (education, production, politics, culture). The purpose of the research is to identify the main behavior patterns of young people associated with the use of AI and to determine the specifics of its influence on the life practices of young people.
    The research methodology is based on theoretical approaches to the study of information society, media audience, media dependence, technical determinism, diffusion of innovations, etc. In September 2023, a preliminary online survey “Artificial Intelligence in Youth Communications” was conducted (66 respondents aged 17–21).
    The results.
    According to the research results, 79% of respondents have experience using AI, but mostly for specific tasks and not systematically. Based on the survey data, six behavioral models of Ukrainian youth related to the use of artificial intelligence were derived and described: 1) “AI as a tool for learning and work”; 2) “AI as a reference source”; 3) “AI as a tool of computer art”; 4) “AI as interlocutor and advisor”; 5) “AI as a tool for finding ideas, planning”; 6) “Not using AI and technophobia”. 21% of respondents do not use AI chats, are not familiar with their functionality and even have signs of technophobia. Currently, AI is not the main way of communication for young people. Young people prefer live communication, as it provides an opportunity to receive empathy and tactile interaction.
    AI is a common component of young people’s media consumption. Life practices of young people are highly mediatized, and the use of AI is becoming multitasking. This indicates that in the future, young people are likely to use AI and cyber-reality more and more actively.
    Keywords: Ukrainian youth, media consumption, artificial intelligence, life practices, behavioral models.

    The article has been sent to the editors 10.10.2023
    Recommended for publication 06.11.2023

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